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Ultrasonic Testing, also called Ultrasonic Flaw Testing or simply UT, uses high frequency ultrasonic waves to detect surface breaking and internal imperfections, measure material thickness and determine acceptance or rejection of a test object based on a reference code or standard. Flaw detection is a fast and accurate inspection method to evaluate internal product integrity. Ultrasound penetrates deeply into materials searching for defects, cracks, delamination, lack of bonding and other discontinuities.

Ultrasonic testing is another form of non destructive testing where a transducer applies ultrasonic pulse waves in the frequency range of 0.5 to 10 MHz in the material and the time of flight of the ultrasonic waves is measured from the initiation time to the return of the reflection to the transducer.

Ultrasonic Testing is mostly used to guarantee the integrity of critical welds in process equipment or structures but can also be used to detect and/or quantify defects occurring in other locations. The testing is often applied directly after the welding process. If welds are identified to be out of specifications, the weld will be grinded down and re-welded. Ultrasonic Flaw Testing has big advantages over RT as there are no radiation risks and it does not interfere with work in surrounding areas.

Metacore Testing Laboratory  performs ultrasonic tests in accordance with  ASME V Article 4, ASME V Article 5, ASME V Article 23,  ASTM E164, ASTM A609, ASTM A388, ASTM A745,  BS EN-10228,  EN-10308, API and other similar national and international standards.



The Magnetic Particle Testing or Examination method may be applied to detect cracks and other discontinuities on or near the surfaces of ferromagnetic and electrically conductive materials.

Magnetic particle techniques thus allow the detection of surface breaking cracks in steel objects of complex geometry, which typically is a challenge for RT methods.

The sensitivity is greatest for surface discontinuities and diminishes rapidly with increasing depth of subsurface discontinuities below the surface. Typical types of discontinuities that can be detected by this method are cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts Direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) are both suitable for magnetizing parts for MT. The primary difference between the two currents is the fields generated by DC penetrate the cross section of the part, and the fields generated by the AC are confined to the metal at or near the surface of the part. Therefore, AC should not be used for subsurface discontinuities.

MPI uses magnetic fields and magnetic particles for detecting defects in ferromagnetic components. The basic principle of this inspection method is that the component specimen is magnetized to generate magnetic flux in the material which travels from the north pole to the south pole (magnetic flux exits at the north pole and enters at the south pole). Now if there is any discontinuity or flaws in the component, secondary magnetic poles are produced in the cracked faces. In this location, the magnetic field spreads out due to the air gap in the defect causing a magnetic flux leakage field. Such regions can be detected easily by using magnetic particles (iron powder), or a liquid suspension on the surface.



Liquid Penetrant Testing or Inspection or Examination Liquid penetrant inspection (LPI), also known as dye penetrant inspection (DPI) or penetrant testing (PT), was first developed in the early 1940s to detect flaws on the surface of materials. Although there are more options in the way the test is performed, the basic principles have not changed over the years.

The Liquid Penetrant Testing or Examination method is an effective means for detecting discontinuities which are open to the surface of nonporous metals and other materials such as metals, plastics, glass, and ceramics e.g. typical discontinuities detectable by this method are cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, laminations, and porosity.

Liquid penetrant inspection is a nondestructive test method which does not harm the samples or parts being inspected. The test is very effective in detecting porosity, cracks, fractures, laps, seams and other flaws that are open to the surface of the test piece and may be caused by fatigue, impact, quenching, machining, grinding, forging, bursts, shrinkage or overload. As a result, it is often used on lots of machined parts, as well as weldments, manufactured products, castings, forgings and other items that will be placed into service. Liquid penetrant inspection can be used successfully on nonporous and fairly smooth materials such as metals, glass, plastics and fired ceramics.

The liquid penetrant can be examined by PT or FPT method, for the highest sensitivity a fluorescent Penetrant in combination with a black light is available. PT can only find surface breaking defects, needs a very thorough surface preparation and has a high sensitivity.



In radiographic testing (RT), a source of X-Ray or Gamma-Ray radiation is used to produce an image of the component on photographic film (by placing the radiation source on one side of the component and the film on the other). Following exposure to radiation, the film is then processed and then viewed on an illuminated screen for visual interpretation of the image. Radiography gives a permanent record (the exposed film), which is a major advantage of the method, and is widely used to detect volumetric flaws (surface and internal).

X-ray equipment ranges from about 20kV to 20MV (the higher the voltage the greater the penetrating power of the radiation and the greater the thickness of component that can be tested). Gamma radiography is carried out using radioactive isotope sources (e.g. Cobalt-60, lridium-192) although its sensitivity is generally less than that achievable by X-ray radiography. lt is widely used for fieldwork because of its greater portability.

The reliability and interpretive value of radiographic images depend on their sharpness and contrast and this is important for the inspector to detect flaws accurately. An Image Quality Indicator (IQI) is placed on the part so that its image will be produced on the radiograph and a standard for sharpness and contrast can be determined.

One drawback of Radiographic Testing is the inherent danger of using a radio-active source which requires stringent safety measures and means a large area around the RT testing site must be closed off before any inspection can start. Recent advances in technology have allowed for safer radiation sources that are suitable for many RT inspections.



An ultrasonic thickness gauge is a measuring instrument for the non-destructive investigation of a material's thickness using ultrasonic waves . The usage of an ultrasonic thickness gauge for non-destructive testing to check material properties such as thickness measurement, is regular in all areas of industrial measurements.

In the field of industrial ultrasonic testing, ultrasonic thickness measurement (UTM) is a method of performing non-destructive measurement (gauging) of the local thickness of a solid element (typically made of metal, if using ultrasound testing for industrial purposes) based on the time taken by the ultrasound wave to return to the surface. This type of measurement is typically performed with an ultrasonic thickness gauge.

Ultrasonic thickness measurement is a non-destructive testing method used to check the metal thickness of Structures, Pipes, Tanks, Vessel, Power plants, etc.


Detection of metal loss caused by corrosion, erosion is vital to ensure the integrity of the inspected item/structure. It also helps us to determine whether the repair work or replacement is essential. Ultrasonic thickness measurement data gives customers the vital information required to find the thickness desired by design. 

An ultrasonic thickness gauge is a measuring instrument for the non-destructive investigation of a material's thickness using ultrasonic waves.

The usage of an ultrasonic thickness gauge for non-destructive testing to check material properties such as thickness measurement, is regular in all areas of industrial measurements

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